Context Of Practice Part 1 Notes from lessons

12/10/17

Introduction to project

What does Context stand for?

  • The surroundings, backgrounds, environment or settings which determine or clarify the meaning of an event.
  • The circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed
  • The parts of a written or spoken statement that precede or follow a specific word or passage, usually influencing its meaning or effect
  • Topics we looked at last year:
  • Reading Images
  • Portraiture
  • Language of Advertising
  • Representation
  • Missrepresentation
  • Objectification
  • Sock and Controversy
  • Sub Culture and Style
  • Culture and Fashion
  • Semiotics of Fashion
  • Fashion: Body and Gender
  • Context of Practice Year 2 Module Aims 
  • To develop and extend a critical understanding of critical, culture and contextual frameworks which inform the production and consumption of commercial photography
  • To develop enhanced communication skills, which demonstrate knowledge and understanding of critical theories and discourses and their impact on creative practice
  • Topics we will be looking at this year 
  • The Body and Sex
  • Gender
  • The Self
  • Culture and Community
  • Technology
  • Capitalism and Commerce
  • Globalisation
  • Sustainability
  • Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual culture – Look at this book again

19/10/17

The body and the gaze

  • The subject as Objects 
  • The concept of objectification has special relevance to photography. In one sense photography inadvertently objectification people by turning them into something to be looked at. (solomon-Godeau 1991:221-22 cited in wells 2000)
  • Men act and women appear 
  • “Men act and women appear. Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at. This determines not only most relations between men and women but also the relation of women to themselves. The surveyor of women herself is male: The surveyed female. Thus she turns herself into an object – and most particularly an object of vision: a sight: Berger 1972:47
  • The Venus of Urbino by Titian 1487-1576
  • The image of nude women in European painting were presented for the male spectator as the ideal spectator was always deemed to be male
  • Olympia – Edouard Manet 1863
  • “You painted a naked women because you enjoyed looking at her, you put a mirror in her hand and you called the painting vanity, thus morally condemning the woman whose nakedness you had depicted for you own pleasure” (Berger 1972:51) – The mirror makes the woman first and foremost a sight to be looked at
  • Susannah and the elders by Tintoretto 1518-1594
  • We look at her being looked at. She looks in a mirror and sees herself as a sight for elders and for the spectator
  • History of body in photography 
  • “The fascination with the body has also been linked to the advent of new technologies and technical knowledge and news means of rapidly reproducing and distributing photographic images.” (Wells 2004;162)
  • Women as Objects
  • The legs of the Countess 1856-60
  • Objectification 
  • “Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at. This determines not only most relations between men and women but also relations of women themselves. The surveyor of women in herself is male: the survey female. Thus she turns herself into an onject- and most particularly an object of vision: a sight.” (Berger 1972:47 cited in wells 2004:170)
  • The Body as Display 
  • Women are depicted in images very differently from men
  • The image of a female nude a women is posed as if her body is on display
  • The female body is understood in terms of forms and desire
  • The body becomes an oboist before the viewers game.
  • Body of action 
  • Whereas the masculine body is one of action
  • Berger’s idea of “men act and women appear” can still be applied to the images we see today 
  • The concept of the gaze is about the relationship between pleasure and images 
  • The camera turns the depicted person into an object 
  • The photographer has control over those in the front of the lens 
  • the camera represents a controlling gaze
  • “People have a habit of looking at me as if i’m some kind of mirror instead of a person. They didn’t see me, they saw their own lewd thoughts, then they white masked themselves by calling me the lewd one.” Marilyn Monroe
  • Laura Mulvey 1975 – Article: Visual Pleasure and narrative cinema 1975 – Coined the term the Male Gaze
  • Male gaze has three different looks:
  • The camera which records the event
  • The spectator as they watch the final product
  • The male characters within the screen
  • Male Gaze
  • “According to principles of ruling ideology…. the male figure cannot bear the burden of sexual objectification.” – Mulvey 1975
  • Emphasises the importance of the patriarchal viewpoint of the camera in narrative cinema
  • The male pleasure and the ‘look’ in cinema is directed at the female
  • Scopophilia and voyeurism 
  • Looking produces Voyeurs – the desire to see the erotic and the forbidden
  • Scopohilia – Literally the desire to see
  • Scopohilia linked to sexual attraction
  • In its most extreme from, the pleasure of looking becomes a perversion
  • “Producing obsessive voyeurs and peeping Toms whose only sexual satisfaction can come from watching, in an active controlling sense, an objectified other” – Mulvey 1989:17
  • Rear Window – Alfred Hitchcock 1954
  • Male gaze in relationship to female objects of visual pleasure. Jeffries gains power by looking
  • Rear Window 
  • Lisa and Jeffries – Lisa is subject to the gaze from the camera, the spectator and Jefferies
  • the media treats power as defined by men. Mainstream movies are generally stories of men lives which revolve around men 
  • We then have a sub genre of chick flicks, which are stories of women’s lives
  • However when you look at these in more detail, they generally revolve around men’s lives too. Women trying to find love, fighting over men, trying to find happiness =, get married have children!
  • “The split between spectacle and narrative supports the man’s role as the active one of forwarding the story .”
  • Hollywood archetypes moved from the:
  • Goddess
  • Victim
  • Femme Fatale
  • Fighting fuck toy
  • Links to showing the male gaze:
  • Man as object: Reversing the gaze Smarts, 2011
  • With a gallery filled with men stripped naked this body of work exposed women’s cheeky, provocative and sometimes shocking commentaries on the opposite sex (which) may make the viewer squirm a little
  • But that is the point
  • Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f98dhxonfwi&hasverified=1
  • Does the rise of male objectification in the media mean equality?
  • How does this translate to advertising and the mainstream?
  • Sex in Media 
  • Links showing sex in adverts and in the media:
  • Girls and boys are seen as objects, they learn to see themselves as objects, self-objectification:
  • Body dimorphic
  • Digital perfect and impossible standards
  • Miss representation
  • “For so long we have been sold a specific idea of what beauty looks like- thin, white, blemish free. However, the representation of beauty or what’s acceptable has been shifting thanks to social media, since the consumer has a platform to rise their voice, express themselves and insert their own images into the visual landscape. people want reality, and they want to see themselves and the topics that matter to them reflected in the world, and in the media.” – Piera Gelardi (2016)
  • Does the gender of photographer change the concept of the gaze?
  • Do women have a the right to self-objectify, without critic?
  • Does the consumer really need sex to buy a product?
  • Is social media changing concepts or just amplifying them?

9/11/17

The self and Identity

  • The self and nature vs nature
  • What is identity?
  • Martha Bek
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Freud’s view of the human mind “the mental iceberg”
  • Freud’s theory of self centred on unconscious mind – The mind consists of three parts: -ID, ego, superego – develops are a result of parental guidance
  • Michel Foucault – he disagrees with nation of collective identity, that nobody should conform to a set of rules to define them – Free floating
  • Erving Goffman – we are all just actors trying to control
  • we present ourselves in six way:
  • personal – performance – staging – terms – personal style
  • Anthony Giddens – he talks about identity
  • Self identify
  • who am I
  • Why am I here
  • Photographers:
  • Sam Taylor – wood (Johnson)
  • Pierre Beteille
  • Phillip Toledano
  • The century of the self – 12st century
  • The century of the self – BBC documentary
  • Gidden’s chapter – key points from each photograph page 105 – 109
  • Modernity + the self the receive project of the self

23/11/17

Culture, community and difference

  • PCA research + scholarship strategy
  • Sustainable futures – technology futures – Community futures – Global Futures
  • 4 Significant domains or themes as priority areas for research + scholarship – These map broadly to critical societal research/issue
  • Community? – social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common culture and historical heritage
  • Culture – the term culture in what is known as the – “Anthropological definition”, refers to a whole way of life, meaning a broad range of activities geared towards classifying symbolically within society
  • Hegemony
  • Culture Hegemony
  • Sub culture? spectacular sub culture, don’t want to follow the norm
  • the youth are seen as the weakest point in the structure of hegemony
  • Derek Ridgers
  • Clubland – Beauty + subculture through the ages
  • Crossing path – Nail McDiarmid a portrait of Briton
  • Representation – operatas via 2 fundermental processes, 2 system of representation
  • Cognition – communication
  • Representation, difference + the others photographing + representation race has been inherently problematic
  • Road chapter – why does “difference” matter  – Stuart Hall, Evans Jand , Nixon, 2013
  • Representation Milton Keyens: Open university

30/11/17

Capitalism + Consumer Culture

  • Capitalism – is based on an ideology of free trade, open markets and individuality
  • Marxism – A general theory of human history which considers the role of economics and the modes of production in the creation of society
  • Marxist theory is used to understand the profound inequalities
  • The consumer Society
  • The emerged in the late 19th century
  • industrialisation and urbanisation
  • Age of mass production
  • increased access to the media
  • New Notions of self and identity
  • Birth of the department store
  • Start of consumer credit
  • Commodity culture: is the process  by which materials object are turned into monetary value
  • After the second world war the consumer society took off – then in 1955, economist victor lebow started
  • Consumer – two different definitions
  • The original – the preoccupation of society
  • Semiotics
  • Equivalence a term used in applications of semiotics to refer to the establishment in an image of a relationship between elements within the frae or between a product and its signifier
  • The hidden persuaders
  • The consumer society – the discourse of advertising constitutes a useless and unnecessary
  • universe – book by Jean Baudrillard – 1968
  • Addressing the consumer – advertising images interpellate their viewers in particular ways hailing them as ideological subjects – viewers recognise them selves in the subject positions
  • Identity – maybe write essay on it?
  • Addressing the postmodern consumer
  • consumer are smart, visually literate and media savvy. The are not easily manipulated
  • Creative persuasion
  • Global Conspiracy
  • Commodity Fetishism
  • The price materialism

7/12/17

Photography and technology

  • Number 1 technology revolution
  • Digestion – first ever digital made
  • Internet – initial commercialisation of the technology began in the 1980s
  • The camera phone – first publicly available device produced by sharp in 2000
  • 2007 Andy Keen – wrote a book called The cult of the amateur – how’s  todays internet is killing out culture
  • Misrepresentation
  • Jean Baidrillard simulacra and simulation 1981

11/01/18

Sustainability

  • Sustainable future
  • Technological future
  • Community future
  • Global Future
  • Edward Burtyeky
  • What is sustainability? – environment/pollution
  • Sustainability development consist of balancing local + global efforts to meet basic humans needs without destroying or degrading the natural environment
  • Before the flood – film about global warming

18/01/18

Research proposal

  • Academic framework
  • Contemporary practice – Historical basis
  • Critical Theory
  • David Bate – theorist
  • Your question – your answer
  • reflection on practice
  • Then learning outcomes
  • Knowledge + understanding
  • Cognitive skills
  • Practical + Professional Skills
  • Key transferable skills
  • Lecture topics
  • The body – self identify
  • Gender – community, culture + difference
  • Capitalism + Consumer culture
  • Photography + technology – globalisation
  • Sustainability
  • your research topic
  • What are you interested in?
  • What have you studied before?
  • What is your practice about?
  • Secondary research sources
  • Books, magazines, trade publications, journals, academic sources, other online sources, tv programs
  • Primary research
  • first hand information that you derive yourself
  • the collection of inflation that doesn’t already exist
  • Observation, experimentation, interview, survey
  • can include visits to galleries, exhibitions
  • Can provide a valuable added dimension to your study
  • Can provide an important link between theory and practice